Coronavirus Vaccines Race: A Graphic Guide

Coronavirus Vaccines Race: More than 90 vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are being developed by research teams at companies and universities around the world. Some of the researchers are experimenting with different technologies that were not previously used in a licensed vaccine. At least six groups started injecting formulation into volunteers in safety trials; others started testing it in animals. Come now Nature Let’s look at the guide published by.

Coronavirus Vaccines Race: A Graphic Guide

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: various approaches

All vaccines expose the body to an antigen that does not cause illness, that is, the person becomes infected, and in this way our body creates an immunity that can block or kill the virus. There are at least eight types of vaccines being tested against coronavirus, and they are based on different viruses or viral parts.

Virus vaccines

At least seven teams are developing a vaccine using the virus itself, in a weakened or inactivated form. Many existing vaccines, such as those against measles and polio, are made this way, but they require extensive safety testing. In Beijing Sinovac Biotech company began testing an inactive version of SARS-CoV-2 in humans.

Coronavirus Vaccines Race: A Graphic Guide

Viral vector vaccines

About 25 groups say they are working on viral vector vaccines. A virus such as measles or adenovirus was genetically engineered to produce coronavirus proteins in the body. These viruses are weak and thus do not cause disease. There are two types of viruses: those that can still reproduce inside cells, and those that cannot because key genes are disabled.

Viral vector vaccines

Nucleic acid vaccines

At least 20 teams aim to use genetic instructions (in the form of DNA or RNA) for a coronavirus protein that causes an immune response. The nucleic acid is then introduced into human cells that make copies of the virus protein; Most of these vaccines encode the spike protein of the virus.

Nucleic acid vaccines

Protein-based vaccines

Many researchers want to inject coronavirus proteins directly into the body. It can also use protein fragments or protein shells that mimic the outer coat of the coronavirus.

Protein-based vaccines

Industry trials

More than 70% of the groups leading vaccine research studies are industrial or private firms. Clinical trials begin with small safety studies in animals and humans, and much larger studies are being conducted to determine whether a vaccine induces an immune response. The researchers are speeding up these steps and hope to prepare a vaccine within 18 months.

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